RELACIÓN DEL TRABAJO CON LA SALUD (Tercera parte)

RELACIÓN DEL TRABAJO CON LA SALUD (Tercera parte)

EL TRABAJO PUEDE CAUSAR DAÑO A LA SALUD (continuación)

Otro aspecto que se determina en la relación con otras personas, se lo llamará riesgo dependiente de la organización del trabajo y de las relaciones laborales. Factores de la organización del trabajo pueden ser determinantes del daño a la salud. Una jornada extensa (o un ritmo acelerado) puede resultar en fatiga del trabajador que se ve así expuesto a una mayor probabilidad de accidentarse. Los excesivos niveles de supervisión y vigilancia pueden terminar por desconcentrar al trabajador de su tarea. Otro factor importante es la claridad de las órdenes de trabajo y la coherencia entre los distintos niveles de mando.
Un trabajo intenso demanda mayor esfuerzo respiratorio que implica mayor probabilidad de aspirar sustancias tóxicas. El horario en que se desarrolla la jornada influye también en las capacidades de respuesta a eventos imprevistos y de tolerancia a agentes nocivos. De las relaciones de trabajo, un factor determinante puede ser la forma y el nivel de salarios. El salario a trato o por pieza es un factor importante de accidentes laborales en muchos talleres. Los bajos salarios, además de producir descontento y poca adhesión al trabajo (lo que lleva a descuidar las normas), inducen al trabajador a prolongar su jornada en horas extra que resultan en fatiga y menor capacidad de responder a eventualidades. Además limitan el acceso a bienes que mantienen o mejoran la salud.
Como se ve, existen muchas formas a través de las cuales el trabajo puede afectar negativamente la salud, no solamente produciendo accidentes del trabajo y enfermedades profesionales. Sin embargo, la legislación diseñada para proteger la Salud Laboral generalmente sólo considera estas dos formas de daño.

RELACIÓN DEL TRABAJO CON LA SALUD (Segunda parte)

RELACIÓN DEL TRABAJO CON LA SALUD (Segunda parte)

EL TRABAJO PUEDE CAUSAR DAÑO A LA SALUD

Las condiciones sociales y materiales en que se realiza el trabajo pueden afectar el estado de bienestar de las personas en forma negativa. Los daños a la salud más evidentes y visibles son los accidentes del trabajo. De igual importancia son las enfermedades profesionales, aunque se sepa menos de ellas. Los daños a la salud por efecto del trabajo resultan de la combinación de diversos factores y mecanismos.
Existe un riesgo intrínseco de materiales, máquinas y herramientas: pueden ser muy pesadas o de mucho volumen, las superficies pueden ser cortantes e irregulares, la complejidad de máquinas y herramientas puede hacer muy difícil su manejo. También influyen las características fisicoquímicas de máquinas y herramientas y las formas de energía que utilizan. Los pisos húmedos, resbalosos y/o en mal estado, locales mal iluminados, ausencia de normas de trabajo seguro; falta de elementos de protección personal y de maquinaria segura o en buen estado, son factores de riesgo que generan gran cantidad de accidentes. Las características de temperatura, humedad, ventilación, composición del aire ambiental, etc. son factores que influyen en accidentes y enfermedades.
Al conjunto de factores nombrados hasta aquí se les llamará factores materiales de riesgo, porque dependen de características materiales del trabajo, independientes de las personas que usen los elementos de trabajo. Pero son los seres humanos quienes aportan un conjunto de factores que llamamos factores sociales del riesgo. Dentro ellos se considera aspectos individuales de las personas: cuánto han aprendido y son capaces de aplicar adecuadamente para realizar su trabajo (calificación), edad, sexo, actitud hacia el trabajo y actitud frente al riesgo.

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  2. ____ I am known for courage, strength of character, loyalty, integrity and work ethic.
  3. ____ I am open to trying new things in different ways to succeed and enjoy life to the fullest!
  4. ____ Producing results makes me happy and excites me as well.
  5. ____ I am accountable, reliable and there when called upon!
  6. ____ I know what I want to accomplish in life and how I want to get there, on my life's plan!
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  8. ____ I believe I am an optimistic and positive person!
  9. ____ I live my life true to my values and have a strong understanding of who I am!
  10. ____ I am willing to stand up for what I believe in and am confident in my own decisions.
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RELACIÓN DEL TRABAJO CON LA SALUD (Primera parte)

RELACIÓN DEL TRABAJO CON LA SALUD (Primera parte)
EL TRABAJO COMO FUENTE DE SALUD.

Mediante el trabajo, las personas logramos acceder a una serie de cuestiones favorables para la mantención de un buen estado de salud. Una comunidad o un país mejoran el nivel de salud de su población cuando aseguran que todas las personas en condiciones de trabajar puedan acceder a un empleo que satisfaga no sólo sus necesidades económicas básicas, sino que llene también los otros aspectos positivos del trabajo, de los cuales aquí sólo se enumeran algunos.
  • Salario: el salario permite a su vez la adquisición de bienes necesarios para la mantención y mejoramiento del bienestar individual y grupal; en las formas de trabajo no asalariado, el producto del trabajo puede servir directamente una necesidad o ser intercambiado por otros bienes.
  • Actividad física y mental: los seres humanos necesitamos mantenernos en un adecuado nivel de actividad física y mental, en forma integrada y armónica, para mantener nuestro nivel de salud; en ese sentido, cualquier trabajo es mejor para la salud que la falta de trabajo.
  • Contacto social: un adecuado bienestar social es imposible sin un contacto con otros, que a su vez tiene múltiples beneficios: cooperación frente a necesidades básicas, apoyo emocional, desarrollo afectivo, etc.
  • Desarrollo de una actividad con sentido: el trabajo permite que las personas podamos “ser útiles” haciendo algo que estamos en condiciones de hacer y que sirve a una finalidad social; desde ese punto de vista, el trabajo permite “pertenecer” a la comunidad y sentirse satisfecho con sus resultados.
  • Producción de bienes y servicios necesarios para el bienestar de otros individuos y grupos: todos los trabajos producen algo para otros, por lo tanto, mejoran el bienestar de los demás.

SALUD OCUPACIONAL

SALUD OCUPACIONAL
¿QUÉ ES LA SALUD?
La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) define la salud como “un completo estado de bienestar en los aspectos físicos, mentales y sociales” y no solamente la ausencia de enfermedad. Esta definición forma parte de la Declaración de Principios de la OMS desde su fundación en 1948. En la misma declaración se reconoce que la salud es uno de los derechos fundamentales de los seres humanos, y que lograr el más alto grado de bienestar depende de la cooperación de individuos y naciones y de la aplicación de medidas sociales y sanitarias.
Los aspectos destacados relacionados con la anterior definición:
  • Igualdad de los conceptos de bienestar y de salud.
  • Integración de los aspectos sociales, psíquicos y físicos en un todo armónico.
  • Adopción de un marco común para el desarrollo de políticas de salud por parte de los países firmantes.
La salud debe entenderse como un estado que siempre es posible de mejorar y que implica considerar la totalidad de los individuos, relacionados entre sí y con el medio ambiental en que viven y trabajan.


Scholarship Application Strategies - Part 3

Etiquette and the Scholarship Search

Today finding scholarships is easy for students—the internet has made it so. With scholarship databases containing millions of dollars in financial aid at your finger tips, you can literally earn a scholarship from a business or organization with which you have no affiliation.


When requesting information about a scholarship:
  • Write a letter expressing your interest in the scholarship and request an application if the scholarship application is not available online.
  • Look for answers to your questions about the scholarship online before making a phone call or sending an e-mail. Take the initiative to find the scholarship information in the materials they have made available to you because usually it is actually there.
  • If the scholarship is discontinued, do not write unreasonable e-mails or letters expressing your contempt for the removal of the award. Scholarships are gifts and, as such, nobody owes you one. Move on to another scholarship and apply elsewhere.
  • If you place a phone call to the organization, be patient, polite, and appreciative even if you are just requesting certain information about the scholarship. Thank them for offering the award.
When submitting an application:
  • Follow the guidelines for submission that the scholarship provider has given you exactly. They’re considering giving you free money for college, comply with their instructions and pay attention to detail.
  • Include a cover letter if the application is submitted by mail, unless the scholarship provider specifically requests that you don’t. Include a self-addressed stamped envelope with the correct amount of postage.
  • Proofread any materials that are submitted along with your application and take any scholarship essays seriously. There is nothing that puts off a scholarship provider like an apathetic student applying for free donations.

When you receive the award: Send a hand-written note thanking the provider for the scholarship money. This is very important. Too often, as soon as the cash is in hand, students forget to acknowledge who gave it to them - please don’t let this happen. Scholarship providers are anxious to hear from you and excited that they are helping you attend college. The silence that falls when they hear nothing from a recipient after they have cut them a check for several thousand dollars is disheartening to say the least.

One year after you receive the award: Say thank you one final time if the award is not renewable. Write your scholarship provider and tell them about what their award has helped you accomplish in the past year, even if the award was small. Such a gesture will be greatly appreciated. If your scholarship is renewable you should still express your gratitude for their continued support and give them an update about your academic progress.

Thank you in advance for using proper scholarship etiquette. By doing so, you will help ensure that scholarship providers will continue to reward deserving students in the future and help another student like yourself attend college.

more informations :
www. scholarships.com
Scholarship Application Strategies - Part 1
Scholarship Application Strategies - Part 2


Student Loan BII

A joint facility between Bank Internasional Indonesia (BII), Sampoerna Foundation, and International Finance Corporation by providing financial support for educational at Sampoerna School of Business and Management (SBM-ITB).

Download Brochure, Application Form, and Letter of Recommendation Form:

- BLEMBA Brochure
- ISEMBA (Energy and Telecommunication) Brochure
- Application Form
- Letter of Recommendation Form

Easy and Surely!
• Surely prepared education financing.
• Application can be easily get from university*, Sampoerna Foundation, and BII branches nearest.
• Easy access to well known university* across Indonesia
• Simple requirement
• Maximum credit facility up to IDR 200 million

Plenty of Advantages!
• No Collateral Credit Facility
• Administration Fee is Free
• Credit Provision Fee is Free
• Flexible Credit Tenor that is 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months.
• The debtor can be Parents, Uncle/Auntie, Spouse, Family Member, or such Student.
• Very Competitive Interest Rate.
• Income can be calculated by joint income.
• Well known participating university* across Indonesia.
• Credit process can be accepted before University intake for surely bank financing.

Special Benefits await you!
• You get BII ComboCard for free and enjoy price discount up to 20% at thousands of merchants all over
• You can transact at 700 BII ATM, 3,000 ALTO ATM and over 800,000 Cirrus ATM
• You can conduct various bill payment transaction: credit card, Telkom, hand phone, pager, insurance and Mutual fund at BII ATM
• Access to BII Internet Banking
Conditions to be met by applicant:
• Indonesian citizen (WNI) who is law literate.
• Minimum age of applicant is 21 years old or is married, and maximum is 60 years old (when credit duration ends).
• Minimum net income must be IDR 40 million per year.
• Work experience must be at least 1 year for employees and 2 years for professional and entrepreneurs.
• Location of residence/work must be located within BII branch area.
• Applicant must be willing to open savings account at BII.

Document Requirement for Employees and Student:
• Original Application Form
• Copy of ID (KTP) belonging to Debtor, Spouse, Guarantor, and Student
• Copy of Kartu Keluarga including Student
• Original Salary Slip and original Work Reference Letter
• Copy of Marriage/Divorce.
• Copy of personal NPWP or copy of SPT PPH 21
• Copy of Birth Certificate of Student
• Original of Offering Letter from University for Student
• Copy of Latest Legalized Educational Certificate for Student
• Copy of Latest Student ID for Student
• Copy of Latest Legalized Transcript for Student

Additional for Entrepreneurs:
• Copy of SIUP
• Copy of current2/savings account for the last 3 months
• Copy of Personal NPWP

Additional for Professionals:
• Copy of business license
• Copy of current/savings account for the last 3 months
• Copy of Personal NPWP 3

For more details, please feel free to contact the Program Officer (Student Loan) Mr. Adi Pratama:
Apratama@bankbii.comThis email address is being protected from spam bots, you need Javascript enabled to view it (0813.81108292).

Reference:
www.bii.co.id

ANTECEDENTES DE LA SEGURIDAD INDUSTRIAL


Antes del siglo XVII no existían estructuras industriales y las principales actividades laborales se centraban en labores artesanales, agricultura, cría de animales, etc., se producían accidentes fatales y un sinnúmero de mutilaciones y enfermedades, alcanzando niveles desproporcionadoS y asombrosos para la época los cuales eran atribuidos al designio de la providencia.
Estos trabajadores hacían de su instinto de conservación una plataforma de defensa ante la lesión corporal, lógicamente, eran esfuerzos personales de carácter defensivo y no preventivo. Así nació la seguridad industrial, reflejada en un simple esfuerzo individual más que en un sistema organizado.
Con la llegada de la llamada “Era de la Máquina” se comenzó a ver la necesidad de organizar la seguridad industrial en los centros laborales.
La primera Revolución Industrial tuvo lugar en Reino Unido a finales del siglo XVII y principio del siglo XVIII, los británicos tuvieron grandes progreso en lo que respecta a sus industrias manuales, especialmente en el área textil; la aparición y uso de la fuerza del vapor de agua y la mecanización de la industria ocasionó un aumento de la mano de obra en las hiladoras y los telares mecánicos lo que produjo un incremento considerable de accidentes y enfermedades.
Los datos recopilados nos presentan fabricas en las que se puede apreciar que las dos tercera parte de la fuerza laboral eran mujeres y niños con jornadas de trabajo de 12 y 14 horas diarias y seria deficiencia de iluminación, ventilación y sanitaria. En esa época las máquinas operaban sin ningún tipo de protección y las muertes y mutilaciones ocurrían con frecuencia. En el año 1871 el 50% de los trabajadores moría antes de cumplir los 20 años de edad debido a las pésimas condiciones de trabajo.
En 1833 se realizaron las primeras inspecciones gubernamentales y fue en el año 1850 cuando se verificaron mejoras como resultado de las recomendaciones formuladas. La legislación acortó la jornada de trabajo, estableció un mínimo de edad para los niños y trabajadores e hizo algunas mejoras en las condiciones de seguridad.
La demora en legislar sobre la protección y concienciación de los trabajadores fue muy prolongada pues el valor humano no tenía sentido frente al lucro indiscriminado de los patronos, quienes desconocían las grandes pérdidas económicas, sociales y de clientes que esto suponía para sus industrias.
En el siglo XIX, en los Estados Unidos de América las fabricas se encontraban en rápida y significativa expansión, al mismo tiempo se incrementaban los accidentes laborales. En 1867, comienzan a prestar servicio en Massachussets los inspectores industriales o fabriles. En 1877 se promulga la primera Ley que obliga resguardar toda maquinaria peligrosa. Más tarde, se realizan esfuerzos para establecer responsabilidades económicas al respecto.
En 1883 se pone la primera piedra de la seguridad industrial moderna cuando en París se establece una firma que asesora a los industriales. Pero es en este siglo que el tema de la seguridad en el trabajo alcanza su máxima expresión al crearse la Asociación Internacional de Protección de los Trabajadores. En la actualidad la OIT, Oficina Internacional del Trabajo, constituye el organismo rector y guardián de los principios e inquietudes referente a la seguridad del trabajador.

Master and PhD Scholarship from Mitsubishi Corporation - Japan

Scholarship of Mitsubishi Corporation to Japan

1. University :
(1) Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Waseda University (GSAPS)
(2) National Graduate Institute For Policy Studies (GRIPS)

Sponsor for Indonesian Applicant : Mitsubishi Corporation& #65288; MC& #65289;(Japan)
Please refer the English version of the above web-site for the details.

2. Home Page :
(1) GSAPS : http://www.waseda.jp/gsaps/
(2) GRIPS : http://www.grips.ac.jp


Please refer the English version of the above web-site for the details.

3. Program, Curriculum : (Please refer the above web-site for the details)
(1) MA Program
(2) PhD Program; Curriculum held in English; MA and/or PhD as per applicant`s choice ; GRIPS rather recommend “Policy Analysis” Program of MA + PhD which is Sept.

4. Period (Academic Calender) : (Please refer the above web-site for the details)
(1) April 2009 Entry
(2) September 2009 Entry

5. Admissions (Qualifications/Submission of Application/Documents):
Please refer the above web-site.

6. Application & Selection Procedure & Deadline :
(1) Mitsubishi wish to have first application around the end of August from UI (FE) and ITB.
(2) Then, GSASP or GRIPS will have selection procedure as follows.

GSAPS : (Please refer the above web-site for the details)
MA Program / April 2009 Entry
(1) Deadline for Submission of Application Documents : September 12th-22nd, 2008
(2) Announcement of Final Result : October 23rd, 2008
(3) Deadline for Entry Procedure : November 27th, 2008

PhD Program / April 2009 Entry
(1) Deadline for Submission of Application Documents : January 7th-15th, 2009
(2) Announcement for Result of 1st selection : February 5th, 2009
(3) 2nd Selection : February 15th, 2009
(4) Announcement of Final Result : February 19th, 2009
(5) Deadline for Entry Procedure : February 25th, 2009

GRIPS : (Please refer the above web-site for the details)
MA Program / April 2009 Entry
(1) Deadline for Submission of Application Documents :

* Public Policy Program : December 3rd, 2008
* Public Finance Program : February 25th, 2009

PhD Program / April 2009 Entry
(1) Deadline for Submission of Application Documents : December, 2008

7. Sponsorship Outline :
MC will support the following costs for Indonesian Applicants during their stay (years) in Japan.
(1) Airfare (Entry to & Departure from Japan, 1 time of Home Leave)
(2) Transport (Domestic Transport in Indonesia & Japan on transferring)
(3) Monthly Living Allowance
(4) Monthly Housing Allowance
(5) Admission Fee for the Study
(6) Other related costs

8. Contacts :
Mitsubishi Corporation (Jakarta Representative Office)
Mr. H. Shinohara :
Tel./ (021) 5795-1108
E-Mail/ hiroshi.shinohara@mitsubishicorp.com

Mr. R. Adi :
Tel. (021) 5795-1108
E-Mail. rusman.adi@mitsubishicorp.com


More Scholarships Info :
www.rumahbeasiswa.com

Scholarship Application Strategies - Part 2

Create Success: Find Money for College
If you are just looking for easy money, the truth is winning scholarships may be difficult to obtain. But if you are attempting to distinguish yourself from your peers, set a standard for excellence, and ease the financial burden of funding your education so that you can focus on your studies, you have a much better chance at succeeding. Before you begin your scholarship search remember that success is created, not found. Likewise, money is earned and, not surprisingly, typically follows success.


How to Create Success :

Research.

Research the scholarship opportunities available to you. You should have a good idea about what your options are before you begin submitting scholarship applications. There are millions of scholarships available, but you won't qualify for all of them. Gathering information about your options should help you prioritize the offers in which you are interested.

Prepare.

Research should give you an idea of the criteria for the scholarships for which you qualify. If you fall short in any areas like community service or extracurricular activities, get involved while you have the chance, and establish a background in these areas. Additionally, build your writing skills. This is critical because most merit scholarships require that you respond to an essay question or submit a writing sample. Prepare a couple of solid essays on vanilla topics like your future goals or interests. These are good practice, and you might even be able to use them for some of the essay scholarships for which you are applying.

Organize.

Many scholarships will require you to submit the following articles:
  • Letters of recommendation from teachers or employers
  • A small photo
  • Cover letter
  • History of community service
  • School transcripts
  • An essay
Have these items compiled ahead of time so that when you find a scholarship you are interested in you are prepared to apply for the scholarship as soon as possible.

Submit.

Submit your portfolios to the scholarship providers in whose awards you are interested. If you choose to send your scholarship application by mail, be sure that the address is correct. Follow the guidelines, and be certain that you meet all of the criteria for a specific scholarship so that you don't waste your time.
File Source: www.scholarships.com

Scholarship Application Strategies - Part 1

Apply For Scholarships

The only way to have a shot at winning scholarships is to apply for scholarships. How do you do that, you ask? Where do you begin? I’m glad you asked.
  • Take a few minutes and conduct a free, college scholarship search at www.scholarships.com.
  • Go over your search results and mark all those you feel you have the best shot at winning.
  • Start contacting scholarship providers and declaring your candidacy for this year’s winner.
Be sure you contact each provider in the manner they've requested, whether it's email, fax or formal letter. If you are applying via mail, you can take advantage of our customizable scholarship application request letter.

It sounds easy, because it actually is easy to apply for scholarships. Some may require you to put in some time, but once you've completed an application or two, I think you might find it will get easier and take less time with each additional one.

Don’t psych yourself out or let yourself get overwhelmed by all you need to do before you graduate high school. Start early and work diligently and it will pay off. You may even find some of the work you do can be applied to multiple scholarship applications- such as an essay or writing sample.

Source information: www.scholarships.com

7 Ways to Keep Your Middle School Student Motivated



7 Ways to Keep your Middle School Student Motivated are:


1. Show love and patience

As parents, we need to make patience and love a top priority. Displaying this love and patience sets the stage for how they as students receive and retain educational information. Foundational support and verbal encouragement are key elements in motivating your child to develop interests and skills that he/she will use in their lifetime.

2. Provide boundaries

Provide and encourage boundaries. Talk with your child about certain TV programs, video games and music. Be aware of your child's friends and activities that they engage in. Guide them in helping to decide on how to make good decisions about their lives.

3. Be a role model

Be an example for your child by showing a continued interest in their education. Encourage them to develop proper and fruitful study and organizational skills. Don't hesitate to communicate to them that you are also in a continual process of education in your parenting and career skills.


4. Teach responsibility

Teach accountibility and responsibility. Provide areas of attainable goals and teach your child to complete the tasks they have set out to accomplish. Reward finished tasks and encourage continual growth.


5. Give variety

Offer a varied range of life experiences.Life is never just vanilla. Help them to realize the wonderful variety of subjects education has to offer. Utilize resources for fresh and fulfilling educational memories.


6. Acknowledge peer pressure

Keep abreast of life's hazards of potential negative behavior. Culture continues to offer potentially harmful acitivities. Know the pressures your child does face on a daily basis. Help them to distinguish between helpful and harmful endeavors.


7. Talk with your child

Communication is key. Always realize that your child faces many issues that are of supreme importance to them. As their parent, they look to you for understanding and guidance. Be honest and humble. Never be afraid to communicate to them that you don't always know the answer. But do assure them that you will always search for a resolution. Listen even if you don't share their intensity.


We all need to constantly remind ourselves that we are not perfect, nor does our child expect us to be. If we attempt to utilize available resources for guiding and encouraging our middle school children, we hopefully will see them succeed in the educational process.

Download Latihan Soal Ujian Nasional (UNAS) 2009

National Test (UNAS) will be held soon, to all Indonesian teachers and students especially 3'rd class students, do not worry about it, you can use this sample examination of National Test (UNAS) of year 2009 for prepare the test. Those files are in .pdf format, to download it, you should be install Adobe Reader or Acrobat Reader on your computer first.
Here the list :

Based on the agreement (BSNP, Depdiknas, and DEPAG) National Examination schedule was decided as follows:
  • Senior High School (SMA/MA/SMK) on April 20-24, 2009
  • Junior High School (SMP/MTs) on April 27-30, 2009
  • Elementary School (SD/MI) on May 11-13, 2009
  • SMK/SMALB on April 20-22, 2009
The list of National Test Preparation for Senior High School (SMA/MA) :
Antropologi (.pdf)
Bahasa Arab (.pdf)
Biologi_IPA (.pdf)
Ekonomi (.pdf)
Fisika_IPA (.pdf)
Geografi (.pdf)
Ilmu Hadits (.pdf)
Ilmu Kalam (.pdf)
IlmuTafsir (.pdf)
Bahasa Indonesia_Program Bahasa (.pdf)
Bahasa Indonesia_Program IPA-IPS (.pdf)
Bahasa Inggris_Program IPA-IPS-Bahasa (.pdf)
Bahasa Jepang (.pdf)
Bahasa Jerman (.pdf)
Kimia_IPA (.pdf)
Mandarin (.pdf)
Matematika_Bahasa (.pdf)
Matematika_IPA (.pdf)
Matematika_IPS (.pdf)
Bahasa Perancis (.pdf)
Sastra Indonesia (.pdf)
Sosiologi (.pdf)

The list of National Test Preparation for Junior High School (SMP/MTs) :
Bahasa Indonesia (.pdf)
IPA (.pdf)
Matematika (.pdf)
Bahasa Inggris (.pdf)

The list of National Test Preparation for Elementary School (SD/MI) :
Bahasa Indonesia (.pdf)
IPA (.pdf)
Matematika (.pdf)

The list of National Test Preparation for (SMK) :
Bahasa Indonesia (.pdf)
Bahasa Inggris (.pdf)
Matematika Akun Penjualan (.pdf)
Matematika Seni Wisata Rumah Tangga PeksosAdmin (.pdf)
Matematika TekKesTani (.pdf)



Source information:
- www.depdiknas.go.id
- http://belajarmengajar.blogspot.com

The Differences Between American, British, And Australian English

Australia, Great Britain, and America all speak the same language, but you simply have to visit each country to realize that, while they all speak English, it is far from a universal language. The English spoken in Great Britain, America, and Australia has many similarities, but a surprising number of differences as well. The main reason for this is the vast distance between each country. Here are some of the common differences you will find between these three versions of English.




Pronunciation Differences

Pronunciation between the three types of English is very dissimilar. In American English the "r" at the end of the word almost always affects its pronunciation, whereas in Australian and British English the "r" is often silent. Also, the emphasis placed on the syllables of the word varies from British, Australian, and American English. In Britain, the world adult has the emphasis on the first syllable, whereas in America it is placed on the second half of the word. Australian English is unique in the fact that many words have sounds that are eliminated. Instead of saying good day, the Australian speaker says g'day. The main pronunciation difference between the three, however, is the pronunciation of the vowel sounds.

Differences in Spelling

Not only do the three types of English sound different, but they are also spelled differently. In some ways, the spelling reflects the difference in pronunciation. For instance, Americans use the world airplane to refer to a flying mode of transportation. In Great Britain, the word is aeroplane, and it is pronounced with an audible "o" sound. Another common difference in spelling is aluminium, which is the UK spelling, and aluminum, the US spelling. Again, the difference shows the difference in pronunciation of the two words. In this instance the Australian spelling is the same as the UK spelling.

Another common spelling difference between UK English and American English is the use of -our verses -or at the end of the word. For instance, in the UK, colour, flavour, honour, and similar words all end in -our, whereas in America they are spelled with the -or ending (color, flavor, honor). In Australia, the -our spelling is almost universal.

Similarly, the endings -re and -re are different between the different English dialects. In America you will go to the theater or fitness center, whereas in Britain you will visit the theatre or fitness centre. Again, Australian English follows the British pattern.

There are other common spelling differences as well. For instance, in American English, words that sound as though they end with an -ize will always end in an -ize. However, in UK English, they typically end in ise (i.e. realize, realise). Also, British English often doubles consonants when adding a suffix when American English does not, such as in the world traveller.

Interestingly, the three languages also have distinct vocabularies. For instance, the "hood" of a car is called the "bonnet" in Australia and Britain. Australia has several terms that are not used in either of the other countries, such as "bloke" (man) and "arvo" (afternoon). Also, Australians use some phrases that are combinations of British and American terms, such as "rubbish truck." Rubbish is commonly used in the UK, and truck is commonly used in America.

Grammar Distinctions

Besides spelling and pronunciation differences, British, American, and Australian English all have some subtle grammar differences as well. For instance, in Great Britain, it is perfectly acceptable to use a collective noun (such as army) as a plural word ("the army are coming"), whereas in America collective nouns are almost always singular ("the army is coming"). British English also uses the irregular form of the past participle of several verbs (learnt rather than learned). Also, British English tends to drop the definite article in some situations. For instance, British English speakers may refer to being "in hospital" instead of "in the hospital." Australian grammar tends to follow British rules.


Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/

Download Free Ebooks

Ebooks are nothing more than a book that is in electronic format, which are available in eBook Reader format, Adobe PDF, Microsoft’s LIT format, and can normally be read with the appropriate reader or other readers such as Pocket PC or Rocket eBook. However, there are several other formats available, which can include ebooks written in Microsoft Word.


Ebooks are so popular because it is like having your own library right at your fingertips with all the books you ever wanted to read at your disposal.

There are some free ebooks that you can download with a single clik and will be update soon for more free ebooks :

Teacher Certification Test Preparation

A Teacher Certification Test is required for all professional educators. For most, this test is crucial for the future of their careers. Thorough preparation is therefore necessary months before the scheduled test. We have compiled several helpful tips for the Teacher Certification Test Preparation.


There are many types of Teacher Certification tests. In the United States, it varies from state to state. It would be best to do some research on the particular requirements of the Teacher Certification Test in your state or locality. Requirements may vary, so early research with respect to the requirements and other important details is advised. Following are helpful tips and guidelines for preparing for a teacher certification test.
  1. Know the requirements and guidelines for taking the test. Teacher Certification Tests vary across the different states so, the requirements may also vary. Knowing these details ahead of time will make you well aware of how much time it would take for you to complete the requirements or what you would need to be able to take the test.
  2. Acquire test preparation materials. Using preparation materials are better than self study. Months of self-study can easily be beaten by a few weeks using study guides and other preparation materials. There are hundreds of these materials available on the internet. There are numerous sophisticated study guide packages for sale for reasonable prices. The price is well worth it and will pay off 10-fold.
  3. Contact your Community College for refresher or review classes. These classes are given by experienced instructors. A specific timeline is followed so you may be more motivated to study in this setting.
  4. Contact your board advisor. In some jurisdictions, the Board that conducts teacher certifications assigns each candidate with an advisor free of charge. The advisor can be helpful in guiding you through the preparation process. This advisor is very knowledgeable of the process and can give you useful tips along the way. If you opt not to use the services of your advisor, be courteous enough to inform them. This way, they can be transferred to other candidates who need their help more.
  5. Take practice tests or assessment tests. Analyzing the results of practice tests tells you where your present score is and highlight the areas you might be lacking. This will help you when you begin your study plan by making you aware of the areas you must concentrate on.
  6. Develop a study plan. A study plan should include a schedule along with the areas you need to cover. Make sure your study plan is achievable. The study plan will help you go through the preparation stage more easily. It will give you an idea on just how much time and work you have to put into preparation for the test.
  7. Consult other resources. Use multiple sources such as past exams, text books, online sources and study guides. It will also be helpful to consult your teachers, professor and other people you might know who have taken the test in the past. They can give you helpful hints and strategies.

Guidelines for the Test Day Itself :
  • Read and reread directions. Take your time in reading the directions. This will prevent unnecessary errors that could jeopardize your grade. It is important for you to know EXACTLY what is being asked of you.
  • Use time wisely. The test will be timed, so you must budget your time. Answer the questions you know the answer to first. Mark those you do not know, make a guess on the answer sheet. After you have answered all the questions you are sure of, go back to the questions you marked. Remember; do not leave any number blank.
  • Mark your answers carefully. The test will be checked by a computer. It is best if you mark your answers carefully and properly to avoid any confusion.
  • If you have time, double-check your answers. If you finish ahead of time, go over your answers again, especially those you are not sure of.
  • Never leave a test early. You can always check it over one more time.
Teacher certifications test may vary from one place to another but the tips we showed you are general tips for preparing for the exam. Give yourself ample time to prepare. Partner this with diligent study and you will be a certified teacher before you know it.

Indonesian Teacher Certification and Portofolio :


Author:
Brian Stocker is a former teacher and Psychologist. He has written widely on education and testing.
Visit his websites
Teacher Certification Exams and Study Skills for information and study guides on College Entrance exams, test preparation and how to study.



Create a Teacher Website that Works for You

People today are busy, and teachers are no exception. Either are students and parents for that matter. We all want information quick, easy, and pertinent. And that is exactly what a teacher website must do.


If your classroom webpage isn't making your job easier, or helping you do it better, maybe its time to evaluate and consider some changes.

If it fails, then valuable time, and maybe resources, are being spent without accomplishing an important goal. One way to help you achieve this is to use a service that allows you to create your own site (such as www.silabus-rpp.blogspot.com)

Information Quick:
Daily updates are a must. Remember, a student that is absent may want to check your site for the night's homework assignment. Well, he may not, but his parents will. The information must be posted promptly. Reserve time before class to update your site. If properly planned, just a few minutes should be all that is needed.

If possible, get your class involved. If they can update some pages, it can become a rotating, class job.

Information Easy:
Don't bury the important information two, three, or more levels deep into your site. If it's important, link from the homepage or put it on the homepage. A consistent place that is easy to navigate to will ensure that users will always see your key messages. As users, we can get discouraged when we can’t find what we are looking for. That shouldn’t be the case with your students.

Information Pertinent:
We are bombarded with information online. Popups, advertisements, videos, and websites of every flavor are competing for our attention. Nothing is as welcome to a user as a crisp, clear message. Do away with space wasters such as visit counters and unnecessary graphics or games.

The bottom line - any and all features of your web site must be there because they help you do your job in some way.

As a busy educator, you probably have little time to devote to creating, and nurturing your classroom website. But it is becoming an essential tool. So, make sure that your content addresses problems, or areas you want to improve. Are too many of your students not doing their homework? Are they not getting the desired outcomes from lessons? Do you need more parent involvement? All of these, and other, questions should be considered when you are creating or modifying your website.

If you take the time to make sure your website provides quick, easy, and pertinent information, your site will work for you - making your job easier and helping you do it better.

Silabus dan RPP SD - Platinum Edition

Free Syllabus (Silabus) and Lesson Plans (RPP) for Elementary School (SD) especially for Indonesian teachers, all files are in PDF format which can be open by using some application software, try to install Adobe Acrobat Reader or Adobe Reader to your computer first, download one of those software from this page, the links is appear on your right side.

Many lessons of syllabus and lesson plan, there are Social Lesson (IPS), Indonesian Lesson, Math Lesson, Science Lesson (IPA) and more wait for the next update.


Just single click to the list link, then it will open document with pdf format automaticly, save to your hard disk!
(you can convert the .pdf to .doc file with using Adobe Acrobat Reader 7)



Free Syllabus and Lesson Plans Platinum Edition for Elementary (SD) lists:


Aktif Belajar IPS SD 1
Aktif Belajar IPS SD 2
Aktif Belajar IPS SD 3
Aktif Belajar IPS SD 4
Aktif Belajar IPS SD 5
Aktif Belajar IPS SD 6

Bahasa Indonesia SD 1
Bahasa Indonesia SD 2
Bahasa Indonesia SD 3
Bahasa Indonesia SD 4
Bahasa Indonesia SD 5
Bahasa Indonesia SD 6

Dunia Matematika SD 1
Dunia Matematika SD 2
Dunia Matematika SD 3
Dunia Matematika SD 4
Dunia Matematika SD 5
Dunia Matematika SD 6

Dunia IPA SD 1
Dunia IPA SD 2
Dunia IPA SD 3
Dunia IPA SD 4
Dunia IPA SD 5
Dunia IPA SD 6

Other levels: SD | SMP | SMA
Source: www.tigaserangkai.co.id

Lowongan Guru TK dan Guru Bahasa Inggris SD, SMP dan SMA

.. URGENTLY REQUIRED ..

- Full Time Teacher for Kindergarten & Primary Level
- English Teacher for Elementary, Junior and Senior High School

Please send your complete cv and latest photograph to:




For Kindergarten Teacher:

Kinderfield Simprug
Belleza Shopping Arcade 2nd floor
Jl. Arteri Soepono No.34 Jakarta Selatan 12210
Email to:kinderfield.simprug@yahoo.com.sg

Requirements:

* Hold min S1 Degree from reputable university with a relevant background (Akta IV is preferred)
* Having min 2 years experience as a kindergarten Teacher / Primary teacher
* Have experience in Montessori teaching is preferred
* Fluent & active English ( min TOEFL score 500 )
* Computer Literate
* Love children & teaching
* Able to work in a team or independently
* Minimum 2 years contract for working with kinderfield


For English Teacher:

HRD Manager
Jl Danau Sunter Utara Blok B1B No 3
Sunter, Jakarta Utara 14350

Closing date: Desember 24, 2008

Silabus dan RPP SMP - Platinum Edition

Free Syllabus (Silabus) and Lesson Plans (RPP) for Junior High School especially for Indonesian teachers, all files are in PDF format which can be open by using some application software, try to install Adobe Acrobat Reader or Adobe Reader to your computer first, download one of those software from this page, the links is appear on your right side.

Many lessons of syllabus and lesson plan, there are Social Lesson (IPS), National Lesson, Math Lesson, Science Lesson (IPA) and more wait for the next update.



Just single click to the list link, then it will open document with pdf format automaticly, save to your hard disk
(you can convert the .pdf to .doc file with using Adobe Acrobat Reader 7)


Free Syllabus and Lesson Plans Platinum Edition for Junior High School (SMP) lists:

Eksplorasi Alam SMP 1
Eksplorasi Alam SMP 2
Eksplorasi Alam SMP 3

Logika Matematika SMP 1
Logika Matematika SMP 2
Logika Matematika SMP 3

IPS Terpadu SMP 1
IPS Terpadu SMP 2
IPS Terpadu SMP 3

BM Kewarganegaraan SMP 1
BM Kewarganegaraan SMP 2
BM Kewarganegaraan SMP 3

Other levels: SD | SMP | SMA
Source: www.tigaserangkai.co.id

Tutorial for Students

There are many tips and tricks of microsoft office product, especially Word, Excel and Powerpoint. Those products are used by the curriculum of high school level in Indonesia. The tips are in PDF formats that can be open by using Adobe Reader software.

Just single click to:

Microsoft Word
Add a Page Break | View a Document | Find and Replace
Change Font Type | Create a Table | Create a Template
Draw an Autoshape | Create a Web Page | Online Training

Microsoft Excel
Create a Formula | Insert and Delete a Worksheet
Paste Values | Absolute Cell References | Create a Chart
Sort Information | Share a Workbook | Save a Web Page
Online Training

Microsoft Power Point
Add Notes | Find and Replace | Change Slide Background
Add a Footer | Draw an AutoShape | Insert ClipArt
Rearrange an Outline | Create a Web Page | Online Training