RIESGOS DE CONTAMINACIÓN QUÍMICA Y BIOLÓGICA - AGENTES BIOLÓGICOS (Segunda parte)

RIESGOS DE CONTAMINACIÓN QUÍMICA Y BIOLÓGICA - AGENTES BIOLÓGICOS (Segunda parte)

DE PERSONA A PERSONA

CONTAGIO POR VÍA RESPIRATORIA

Ejemplo: Enfermedades agudas respiratorias.

Actividad laboral en que existe exposición: Lugares de atención a público, trabajo con niños, trabajo con enfermos.

CONTAGIO POR CONTAMINACIÓN DE ALIMENTOS

Ejemplo: Enfermedades diarreicas, fiebre tifoidea.

Actividad laboral en que existe exposición: Manipulación de alimentos, lugares con mal abastecimiento de agua potable.

CONTAGIO POR LA VÍA DE DESECHOS HUMANOS

Ejemplo: Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana.

Actividad laboral en que existe exposición: Trabajo en clínicas, consultorios, hospitales, servicios dentales.

En general, las medidas de prevención frente al riesgo de contaminación con agentes biológicos implica el adecuado aseo personal, medidas generales de aseo y control de plagas en los locales de trabajo, disponibilidad de agua potable, duchas y casilleros guardarropas, además de información sobre el riesgo a las personas expuestas. Cuando existe manipulación directa de animales o de desechos humanos o animales, la primera medida preventiva es la información acerca del riesgo específico, la identificación de animales sospechosos y la manipulación de acuerdo a normas escritas (en algunos casos existen disposiciones especiales dentro de Códigos Sanitarios, especialmente para el trabajo en mataderos, casinos y en hospitales). En algunos casos, la prevención del contagio por riesgo biológico también implica la vacunación.


ARE YOU A CONSTRUCTIVIST TEACHER?

("Teacher's job is not to teach, but to find the ways & circumstances of learning for the students." Here the author focuses on the personality & spiritual characteristics of teacher which can play as a facilitator to children. The author is very hopeful to achieve renaissance in the learning & society.)

Falling in the love of ‘teaching profession' out of the hundreds and thousands of choices is not a joke at all. Those who have loved the same for their lives are great, very great?


Building a generation is not so easy as compared to the job of an engineer to build a structure or a doctor to cure a patient.

Very sensitive role the teacher has to play. Building a generation means to give a shape to the future society what the country and the universe need now. And the better generation is the only panacea of any type of problem that our society faces today. Our society now needs the gentle minds to work peacefully, the lovable hearts to hug everybody & the strong body to protect and serve the country and the world. When this is the only dream that we recommend, then the society pleads for the ‘constructivist teachers' those who aim at "change"-within first, then in the generation as the children are the best link between the society & wisdom. The teacher is a creative learner who sits among the several learners to create a conducive environment in learning. Thus a big change is possible; a renaissance can be with us very soon if the preparedness is with us...

Spirituality is the prime necessity of a teacher. As spirituality is the fire, the teacher purifies himself by going deep in to it and becomes more creative by this. Every meditation charges him with potential energy to feel and to start anything new and positive for the society. Today, teachers are totally attached to their self family which makes them busy to solve their own problem. But when the teacher knows himself as a soul & the whole universe as a big spiritual entity, he realizes his "Dharma" & treats every one as the family member. He thinks for a change, transformation in the society. Unless & until the transformation takes place within him, how can he dream for a transformed generation out of him? That's why Yogi Sri Aurobindo said, "The teacher must be a yogi". Here yogi means a sense controlled man having abundant energy to motivate the children. He must be a sadhaka- a spiritual preceptor. He must have the right living style to inspire the children. A teacher who lacks morality has no good impact upon the children.

Teacher is the source of energy the vibration. The students become charged by him & become more energetic even than the teacher. The spiritual eye of a tacher is so powerful that it touches all the souls in the class. His attachment in the very smile makes the classroom easy going. Just we can think of a spiritual guru when he speaks something the whole people are trapped with the vibration spread by him. When a teacher becomes lovable, spiritual, dynamic within, then all things can be done in a very short time. The main centre of energy is that powerful soul within the teacher. The change within the soul of the teacher is the basis of all creativity & dynamism in the system of learning.

Understanding the child is possible only when the teacher understands himself. If the teacher is busy with so much misunderstanding within him, in his family then how can he spread the value of understanding within the children? A teacher must understand the needs & the problems of the students. He should go to the level of the students to understand their personality & requirements. By understanding their state of mind & psychology only, the teacher can motivate them.

Teacher is the example in front of the children. If the teacher himself is an angry man, has no patience then expecting the values of patience & calmness are fruitless job of him. This thing happens in respect to the parents also because parents are the so called demy God of the child. The young mind of the child grows with the circumstances around him. He sees the culture of the parents, elders & teachers & learns the same from the very childhood. Teacher must be a learner first. He should ask the question to himself in the calm mind about the change he dreams to fulfill.

The teacher must be always innovative to adopt new methods to motivate the learning among the children. He must take up the child centered methods of teaching such as group discussion, seminar, panel discussion, field trip, brain storming, role play, etc. According to Albert Einstein, "It is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative expression and knowledge."School will be a right platform to fulfill the goal of education if the relationship between the students & teachers maintained properly. Teacher is the friend, philosopher & guide of the students. A teacher is the best motivator, a sparker and a charger. Students are inspired by their captain i.e. teacher.

All education is there within the learners. Only the work of the teacher is to facilitate, motivate, & inspire so that all qualities from their hidden treasure will be unfolded. All creativity lies within the children. Child posses the divine soul within which lies the source of all potentialities. Due to ignorance of his/her potentialities & abilities a child fears to do something. A teacher is a spiritual guide to enlighten the students' soul. Just like a brother a teacher helps the students in their growth. The teacher is a magnate to attract the iron like children. His personality itself provides ample spirit, huge energy, and immense motivation to the children. Teacher is the sun to radiate his power of motivation to build a world of students with strong characters. Personal involvement of the students in an activity gives inner motivation to them. They feel themselves precious of doing impossible possible.

To err is human. But the good actions must be praised. Every child has some good qualities within him. The role of the teacher is not to criticize him for his mischief but to praise his even single good quality & at the same time to inspire him with giving assurance of potentialities within him. The system of praise the single good quality grows the confidence within the child & he starts feeling himself worthy & valuable. All students are not born for academic education. They have their natural aim & tendencies. A teacher must identify the hobbies & natural abilities within a student so that he can motivate in that area build a nice & successful human being with special qualities.

Smile plays a very important role not only in the boundary of the school but also even in the outside world. Smile is the expression of love. It's the magnate, which pull all towards it. As everybody wants a smile, School should also be the platform of smile. A teacher touches the heart of a student through the magnetic touch of smile. Smile creates confidence & love among the children. The development of the children on the subjects happens only when they start liking & loving the teacher. ‘Unless the children love the teacher, how can they love the subject?' Smiling face of the teacher creates vibration among the children who become fearless to express everything. They ask questions. ‘Freedom automatically happens when smile exists in the classroom'.

Be a friend to the child. Friendship can help you to understand a child more & more. A child expresses his difficulties/problems only to his/her friend; he/she may be his/her mother, father or teacher. Once you exhibit your role as a taskmaster or ringmaster to your child, you spoil everything. The child starts hating you & hiding everything to you. He develops fear to you. That's why some parents & teachers are found to be in the problem that the child is not free & frank to tell his problem. Actually it's not the mistake of the child. It's the fault of the parents, teachers & elders who lack the art of ‘how to be a friend of the child'

A teacher can motivate the children to read more books. This is only possible when the children will find the teacher in reading. Books are the sources of energy & motivation. The teacher should be a regular reader of books & magazine & collect knowledge to inspire the children by telling new things. Teacher can create his own library & inspire the pupils to create small library their own.

By asking creative questions a teacher can create a thinking channel among the students. According to Socrates ‘the classroom is a fighting ground between the teacher & students & the weapons are the questions.'

The teacher himself is the motivation for the students. Through his personality, reading habits, physical culture etc he can show him as the example in the society & before the students because the pupils always like to follow their teacher. Thus a teacher can do a lot through his power of motivation. It is because of his motivation the pupils enjoy & learn in a very friendly environment. A teacher should realize his/her power of motivation & use it properly when & wherever needed. He has to demonstrate the essential values such as optimism, motivation, willingness to learn & teach, truth, non violence, never to think ill to others, creativity leadership, love etc.

Every child is different & unique. They are with many more specialties. The wicked children of your class are having the highest possibilities & multi-dimensional personalities. They become naughty, as they need more work to do, more fields to work & show their personalities. Choose the most naughty children of your class & assign them some works & see how quickest they are! Within fraction of minutes they do the work. The naughty children are the future's best human resources. The teachers & parents have to understand this truth more & more & should try to find out the possibilities & capabilities within them, so that "Every child will be special" in time to come. Children are born already with unlimited potentialities. It is we who either misguide & deform or help to develop them & make them worthy in every field. Every child has immense potentiality within. Teacher's work is to inspire the child in his own pace of creativity & innovation. Then only you can guide him/her to reach at his/her highest level. Recognizing the unique personality of a child & encouraging him is our duty.

The role of a teacher in the changing social scenario is becoming very challenging. The society is becoming more materialistic & values appear to be pushed into the background. There is nothing unusual about it. But the situation would not remain like this for ever. There are enough indications that our country would awaken once again to those eternal values for which this land has stood for many centuries. We are at a transition time during which it is essential that the values are maintained & nurtured. Only an ideal teacher whose life itself is a beacon light of values can lead a society in the right direction.
By: Harekrushna Behera

RIESGOS DE CONTAMINACIÓN QUÍMICA Y BIOLÓGICA - AGENTES BIOLÓGICOS (Primera parte)

RIESGOS DE CONTAMINACIÓN QUÍMICA Y BIOLÓGICA - AGENTES BIOLÓGICOS (Primera parte)

En este caso, los agentes contaminantes son seres vivos, de tamaño microscópico, que provocan enfermedades en el ser humano. Una forma de clasificarlos es según su pertenencia a distintas especies de seres microscópicos, pero más útil para la prevención es clasificarlos según la forma de transmisión a los seres humanos:

DE ANIMAL A PERSONA (ZOONOSIS)

POR MORDEDURA O PICADURA

Ejemplo: Rabia

Actividad laboral en que existe exposición: Crianza, cuidado de animales domésticos, zoológicos, demoliciones.

Ejemplo: Enfermedad de chagas

Actividad laboral en que existe exposición: Actividades agrícolas o en zonas de contagio.

POR CONTACTO DIRECTO

Ejemplo: Toxoplasmosis.

Actividad laboral en que existe exposición: Crianza y cuidado de animales domésticos.

POR CONSUMO O POR CONTACTO CON DESECHOS DE ANIMALES INFECTADOS

Ejemplo: Hidatidosis.

Actividad laboral en que existe exposición: Ganadería, manipulación de animales infectados.

Ejemplo: Brucelosis.

Actividad laboral en que existe exposición: Ganadería.

Ejemplo: Virus Hanta.

Actividad laboral en que existe exposición: Actividades agrícolas, campamentos en zonas de contagio.

Ejemplo: Psitacosis.

Actividad laboral en que existe exposición: Crianza y cuidado de aves, zoológicos.

ORIENTACIÓN ACTUAL DE LA SEGURIDAD INDUSTRIAL INTEGRAL

ORIENTACIÓN ACTUAL DE LA SEGURIDAD INDUSTRIAL INTEGRAL

La orientación actual de la seguridad industrial en un ámbito integral puede ser descrita a través de lo siguiente:

  • Búsqueda del bien común a nivel de toda la Sociedad (Trabajadores, Empresarios y Comunidad).
  • Actitud Dinámica y de posición Pro-activa.
  • Iniciativa en el logro de mejores niveles de Protección.
  • Perspectiva integradora con los distintos componentes de los Sistemas Sociales (Hombre - Métodos - Maquinas - Productos) y las funciones de Eficacia Social y Empresarial (Calidad - Productividad - Cultura Organizacional - Medio Ambiente).
  • Interacción y coordinación entre los diversos riesgos que pueden afectar al Sistema.
  • Tratamiento especializado para los casos de riesgos de gran importancia (tratamiento cualitativo y cuantitativo).

Tutoring Versus Training

by: Dr. Ken Gibson

Your child has difficulty in third grade math. You send him to a tutor. The tutor works diligently for several weeks with him on his grade-level math concepts and assignments. He goes on to pass the third grade with B's. So far so good. Summer comes and goes. His fourth grade assignments hit, and once again, basic weaknesses prevent him from learning the new concepts. The processing and visualizing skills he needs just aren't there. You could pay for another round of tutoring to help with these assignments as well, but the underlying reason he failed to understand them in the first place goes untouched. It will reemerge...


How do you "train" someone to learn?

Current learning science makes it necessary to look at learning as two distinct parts: Specific academic study and a student's underlying ability to learn. To create the best opportunity for maximum academic progress, the underlying mental skills that lead to easy learning must be as strong and efficient as possible, and this may require specific training. Why? The brain physically changes in response to appropriate training. Its neural pathway efficiency improves in much the same way that muscle cells respond to progressive resistance training by developing added strength. The "untrained" brain that performs slowly and inefficiently (resulting in persistent sub-par learning) can become a fit brain, quick to respond when facing new learning challenges. You can literally train and strengthen your mental skills and have more brainpower!


What is Brain Training?

Brain training (also known as mental or cognitive skills training) is significantly different than tutoring. Common academic study, and special help such as tutoring, both focus on specific academic tasks, and simply ignore the condition of a student's underlying mental skills. In fact, success in general academics or special tutoring is completely dependent on the student's underlying ability to learn. For those who struggle or fail, it is not necessarily his or her study habits or missing academic knowledge that is the problem. Underlying cognitive weakness is often the cause of the difficulty. Until the underlying skills that provide the basic ability to learn are strengthened, tutoring help can only produce temporary progress at best. Struggles WILL reemerge at the very next new challenge, and the next, and the next, until the challenges grow too difficult even with tutoring help, or the student simply gets frustrated and gives up. If this is your child, he or she is at risk of being identified as a failure by these repeated struggles. You risk paying for tutoring each and every year with absolutely no guarantee of future success.

The appropriate mental skills training is different. It provides you and your student the chance to get to the root of the problem and literally rebuild his or her basic ability to read and learn. A struggling student, or one seeking to optimize academic performance, must consider training the mental skills that are the foundation to learning.


Two Different Needs, Two Solutions

As mentioned above, learning can be divided into two elements: the specific academic challenge (such as reading) and the underlying skills needed to perform it well (for example, auditory processing and word attack). A tutor can enhance academic success in a given task if the student has sufficient underlying skills to meet the challenge. If that student struggles due to skill weaknesses, a trainer, not a tutor, is needed. Once you learn to read, you should be able to do it with little thought. But if one of the basic and necessary reading skills (such as sound blending and auditory processing skill) were missing, you'd have difficulty reading well no matter how much tutoring you got. Further assignments in reading theory or even practice reading wouldn't overcome the underlying problem.


Look for Better Testing and Training Options

Intense training exercises focused on specific areas of weakness can quickly strengthen key mental skills, and literally change the way a student learns. But how do you know if training is what your child needs? When looking for effective help, the right testing is also critical. Far too often a student's individual underlying skills are either not identified or are averaged and reported as an IQ score. Even when classified in terms such as "an auditory learner" or "a visual learner" this imprecise identification limits the help a student can receive. On the other hand, testing prior to skills training is designed to single out key skills that impact the learning or reading struggle. It is then possible for a qualified mental skills trainer to enhance cognitive skills such as auditory and visual processing, logic and reasoning, and working memory through direct training. The results are better academic performance almost immediately, and an enhanced ability to learn into the future.

Tutoring can benefit students in certain situations, but for those with underlying cognitive skill weaknesses, cognitive skills training is the answer. So, when you're looking to help your child eliminate persistent struggles in school…think brain training first.

If you believe there is unrealized learning potential in yourself or someone you love, a simple cognitive test could be the key to unlock that potential. At LearningRx, we offer such testing as a wise and affordable first step. LearningRx has 32 locations in 15 states. Please give us a call today. We can answer your questions, and help test and strengthen skills that can lead to that brighter future.

ÁREAS EN EL ÁMBITO DE LA SEGURIDAD INDUSTRIAL

ÁREAS EN EL ÁMBITO DE LA SEGURIDAD INDUSTRIAL

La Seguridad Industrial es un trabajo que cubre varias áreas, entre ellas están las: productivas, administrativas, financieras y comerciales. A continuación se listan algunas que se deben conocer y probablemente se encuentren en una parte importante de las empresas:

  • Gerencia de Riesgos.
  • Prevención de Accidentes.
  • Higiene Ocupacional.
  • Protección Ambiental.
  • Seguridad contra Incendios.
  • Protección Física, Bienes e instalaciones.
  • Resguardo de Personalidades.
  • Medicina Ocupacional.
  • Ergonomía del Trabajo.
  • Seguridad del Producto.
  • Seguridad en el Transporte del Producto.
  • Seguridad Social y Bienestar Humano.
  • Seguridad Jurídica.
  • Seguridad Financiera o Bancaria.
  • Seguridad en la Informática.
  • Seguridad Aérea. (Militar y Civil).
  • Seguridad Marítima. (Militar y Civil).
  • Seguridad Territorial Militar.
  • Seguridad Vial o Terrestre.
  • Seguridad Espacial. (En el Futuro).

CONCEPTOS BÁSICOS EN SEGURIDAD INDUSTRIAL (Segunda parte)

Concepto de Accidentes Laborales:

Es un acontecimiento deseado o no, que trae como resultado un daño físico a la persona o a la propiedad. a consecuencia del contacto con una fuente de energía que sobrepasa la capacidad de resistencia limite del cuerpo o estructura.

Concepto de Accidente Común:

Son las lesiones funcionales o corporales resultantes de la acción violenta de una fuerza exterior, comprendida en un periodo fuera del horario de trabajo.

Concepto de Enfermedad Ocupacional-Profesional:

Son los estados patológicos resultantes del trabajo, causado por el medio ambiente laboral en el cual se encuentra obligado a trabajar, causando un trastorno funcional o lesión en el organismo.

Concepto de Enfermedad Común:

Es el trastorno funcional del trabajador ocurridos fuera o si ocasión del trabajo desempeñado.

Concepto de Acto Inseguro:

Es toda violación que comete el ser humano a las normas consideradas seguras en la Seguridad Industrial.

Concepto de Condiciones Inseguras:

Son todos aquellos riesgos o peligros mecánicos o físicos, provenientes de máquinas, instalaciones, herramientas, inmuebles, medio ambiente laboral, etc., que amenazan la integridad física del trabajador.

Concepto de Factor Personal Inseguro:

Es la característica mental que permite ocasionar el Acto Inseguro, tales como: Falta de Conocimiento Teórico-Prácticos, motivación incorrecta, supervisión inadecuada, problemas físicos y Mentales, malos hábitos de trabajo, etc.


Lowongan Guru Preschool - April 2009

Peach Blossoms Preschool And Kindergarten
National Plus School in West Bekasi, looking for Preschool Teacher with qualification:

Preschool Teacher
(Jawa Barat - Bekasi Barat)

Advertised: 10-3-2009
Closing Date: 8-4-2009



Requirements:
  • Female
  • Maximum age 35 years old
  • Minimum Bachelor (S1) Degree (from English literate would be an advantage)
  • Having min 1 year experience teaching in Preschool or Kindergarten
  • Fluent in English (both Oral & Written)
  • Love children, and willing to work in team

Please send your application by email to:

peachbls14@yahoo.com or bhi_0107@yahoo.com

Teacher, Do You Smile?

Smile plays a very important role not only in the boundary of the school but also even in the outside world. Smile is the expression of love. It's the magnate, which pull all towards it. As every body wants a smile, School should also be the platform of smile. A teacher touches the heart of a student through the magnetic touch of smile. Smile creates confidence & love among the children. The development of the children on the subjects happens only when they start liking & loving the teacher. ‘Unless the children love the teacher, how can they love the subject?' Smiling face of the teacher creates vibration among the children who become fearless to express everything. They ask questions. ‘Freedom automatically happens when smile exists in the classroom'.


The children always try to ape the teacher. They ape the teacher's anger, smile, talking etc. They carefully observe the personality of the teacher & discuss among them. Smile helps in many ways both the teacher & the children. Followings are some of the benefits to count.


1. SMILE PAYS PERFORMANCE

A subject will be popular only when the teacher is popular & lovable. Teacher's smile is the spark of love spreading towards the children, which bind them as magnate with him/her. The smile makes the children fearless & brave in the class to ask every question. With out a question a class is meaningless & helpless & may be termed as poor class. ‘That teacher is fortunate who is attacked by several questions of the children'.



2. SMILE SPREADS LOVE

As it is the truth that ‘the love can change the heart & that is the permanent change within', the teacher should always express the love through his smile. One spark of smile spreads ounce of love, which makes the children & classroom happy & lovable. If the classroom is happy then the children can better study through the happy environment. They can enjoy the study. ‘The study you enjoy is the real study & is unforgettable'.


3. SMILE LEADS TO POPULARITY

Some teachers become arrogant of the popularity of another teacher. But they couldn't understand the secret of this popularity. ‘The moment the teacher smiles, he sprinkles the hope & confidence among the children'. Now they hope the possibility & gain from that teacher. A teacher with happiness is definitely caught by so many disciples.


4. SMILE COMMANDS OVER THE CLASS

Smile is the magic of the teacher to control the class. Smile attracts everybody. Smile has a true impact upon the children. If you want to be a popular leader then smile first. Your first smile will compel every body to smile. ‘Smile is the hidden command where the teacher mesmerizes the children as the magician mesmerizes the audiences'. Smile attaches the attention of the students towards the teacher only as our soul always attach itself to happiness & smile.


5. IMPACT UPON THE CHILDREN

Smile has always a positive impact upon the children. In repercussion the children build only the positive traits among them. The teachers are the real examples in front of the children. The students learn to be happy from the teacher in this way. When the children learn how to smile then all other negative ideas vanishes from them automatically.


6. LIFE BEAUTIFUL

‘Face becomes beautiful, mind becomes beautiful & after all our life becomes beautiful when we smile'. Smile washes out all impurities within. We get happiness & pleasure with a spark of smile because the original status (swarup) of our soul is Anand (happiness). If one smile has the ability to catch the attention of everybody, then why not the teacher smiles? Let's beautify our life & every life of the children through smile.


7. BUILDING CONFIDENCE

Smile is the sign of the personal self-confidence & also building other's confidence. Once the children become comfort with the moderate language & behavior of the teacher they start keeping faith on the teacher. Confidence level in the subject depends on the easy & lucid presentation of the chapter by the teacher. Generally smile makes the chapter so light that every student feels easy.


8. INCREASES FREEDOM

Freedom of the children expands only when the teacher accepts them with love. All creativity & innovation depends on the freedom of the children, they have. ‘The true nature of the soul is freedom. So the children become very happy if they are given freedom to think & express.' These can only happen when the teacher smiles in the class & becomes student-friendly. ‘The fear can in no way solve the problems of the children'.


9. LEARNING BECOMES ENJOYABLE

Learning among the children becomes enjoyable when the teacher's heart & face is full of happiness. Smile spreads the message of love & brotherhood among all. It is better to teach in a smiling face in the class. While teaching We should feel the children not as students but as the Divine souls. Smile makes the subject easy & learning based. Smile makes the brain of both the teacher & children very light. A reserve mind & face creates no magic in the class. The class becomes a boring one for all time.


10. EMOTIONAL EXPANSION

The emotion of both the teacher & children expands with the mere touch of smile. The heart is the center of the emotion. This emotional expansion leads to better understanding of concepts. Positive emotion is created & it leads to creativity & innovation. If positive emotion persisted for a long time, the level of confidence & success increases to the top. Smile opens the closed heart for all. The pupils now fearless to tell every problem & share every thinking with the teachers.

Thus smile plays a pivotal role in the life of both teachers & children. The smile if starts from the school & spread to every house then our country becomes ever happy. If every body starts smiling then the stress & diseases will be zero. If every class of a school is started with a smile, we should not be worried about the result. The day will come the smiling children will express freely & do what ever the school planned to achieve in the near future. Every school should have a motto that is ‘KEEP SMILING' Smile radiates the positive vibration to everybody. If you smile the whole world is bound to smile. There is nothing wrong to say so.

By Mr.Harekrushna Behera,Unchahar
E.Mail- hare_321ku@rediffmail.com)

CONCEPTOS BÁSICOS EN SEGURIDAD INDUSTRIAL (Primera parte)

CONCEPTOS BÁSICOS EN SEGURIDAD INDUSTRIAL (Primera parte)

A continuación se describen algunos de los conceptos básicos ligados al ámbito de la seguridad industrial.

Concepto de Seguridad:

Es el grado ideal de compenetración del Hombre, consigo mismo y con el medio ambiente que lo rodea, donde su salud, integridad física y la satisfacción de todas sus necesidades, estén garantizadas por un margen del 100 % de probabilidad.

Concepto de Seguridad Industrial:

Es una disciplina que establece normas preventivas con el fin de evitar Accidentes y Enfermedades Ocupacionales-Profesionales, causados por los diferentes tipos de agentes.

Concepto de Higiene Industrial:

Es la rama de la Medicina Preventiva, que trata de los medios que deben usarse en el trabajo, tanto en su ambiente como en sus propias tareas, para evitar daños a la salud de los trabajadores.

Concepto de Ergonomía:

Es la moderna Ciencia del mejoramiento de las condiciones de trabajo humano, en función de las facultades y limitaciones reales de los hombres que desarrollan su labor productiva. Viene de: Ergón - Género - Trabajo y de Nomos - Ley o Norma.

Concepto de Prevención de Accidentes:

Es la Ciencia destinada a evitar los Accidentes en todas las actividades de la vida humana.

Concepto de Riesgos Profesionales:

Es el grado de probabilidad al cual se enfrenta una persona que le ocurran Accidentes o Enfermedades Ocupacionales-Profesionales en o con ocasión del trabajo. Riesgo: Umbral del Peligro. Profesión: Oficio al cual se dedica una persona.

USA - WIFLE Scholarships Program 2009: Scholarships in Law Enforcement for US Citizen

WIFLE Foundation, Inc. and Women in Federal Law Enforcement, Inc. (both known as WIFLE) are organizations with a goal to achieve gender equity within federal law enforcement through the recruitment, retention and promotion of qualified women in law enforcement, and to develop an information-sharing and support network for all women in law enforcement.

In July 2006 the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics announced that as of September 2004, there were more than 106,000 full time personnel authorized to make arrests and carry firearms in the Federal government. Women represent 16.1% of that workforce. There remains much to be done to achieve gender balance within the federal agencies. It is in the spirit of achieving this goal that WIFLE offers scholarships.


THE SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM

Purpose: WIFLE offers several scholarships to talented individuals to meet the demands in the field of law enforcement and to foster the professional development of those engaged in law enforcement. The dollar amount of each scholarship will be $2,500, but can vary based on numerous factors. WIFLE awarded $16,000 in scholarships in 2008. Awards may be renewable on subsequent applications.

Eligibility: WIFLE scholarships are awarded based on a student’s academic potential, achievement, and commitment to serving communities in the field of law enforcement. The scholarship is open to all eligible persons. To be eligible for the scholarship, the applicant must:
  • physically attend and be a full-time student at an accredited four-year college or university; or be currently enrolled full time in a fully accredited community college with the intention of transferring to a four-year degree;
  • have completed at least one full academic year of college work at an accredited college or university or community college;
  • major in Criminal Justice or a related discipline such as social sciences, public administration, computer science, finance, linguistic arts, chemistry, physics, etc., leading to a four-year degree (Students in graduate and postgraduate programs are also eligible; students pursuing Associate degrees are not eligible, unless as stated above, fully articulate in the application their intention to transfer to a four-year program.);
  • have a minimum 3.0 overall grade point average (GPA);
  • demonstrate a commitment to the community through a 500-word essay describing their involvement in a community project, and the results or impact of that involvement to the community; OR, if the applicant is currently serving or has served an internship with a law enforcement agency, preferably a federal law enforcement agency, the applicant must provide details including the name of the agency, the dates served and describe the value of the experience and the accomplishment through the internship in a 500-word essay;
  • have at least one community leader or member of a community or police official sponsor their application with a written statement of support;
  • submit a completed application with the required information, 500-word essay, transcripts, and a recommendation letter from a community leader or police official;
  • be a citizen of the United States.

SCHOLARSHIP APPLICATION PROCESS

Information and applications are available through the WIFLE website at www.WIFLE.org and must be received by the Scholarship Coordinator no later than May 1, 2009. Extensions will not be granted. Applications that are incomplete or received after the deadline will not be considered. Letters of recommendation should be mailed with the application, if possible, but must be received by the deadline. Recipients will be notified by May 22, 2009, and awards will be mailed directly to the educational institutions. For answers to specific questions, contact WIFLE by e-mail at WIFLE@comcast.net. Mail all applications to the attention of the Scholarship Coordinator at:

WIFLE
Attention: Scholarship Coordinator
2200 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 102
PMB-204
Arlington, VA 22201-3324

RIESGOS DE CONTAMINACIÓN QUÍMICA Y BIOLÓGICA – SUSTANCIAS QUÍMICAS (Cuarta parte)

RIESGOS DE CONTAMINACIÓN QUÍMICA Y BIOLÓGICA – SUSTANCIAS QUÍMICAS (Cuarta parte)

SUSTANCIAS QUÍMICAS (continuación)

Por lo anterior, el principio de la legislación es fijar un límite permisible, es decir, una concentración ambiental (en el aire) que se supone segura para la salud. Para sustancias que penetran a través de la piel, el valor ambiental no sirve y por eso la legislación hace una advertencia, de manera que se adopten medidas preventivas en la manipulación. Los daños que se pueden producir son variados, dependiendo del compuesto químico de que se trate: daños a nivel respiratorio, digestivo, riñones, hígado, sistema nervioso, aparato musculoesquelético, glóbulos rojos, etc. Algunas tienen riesgo de producir cáncer y otras riesgo de malformaciones en la descendencia. El riesgo de contaminación química obliga a tomar medidas que incluyen el etiquetado y almacenamiento seguros, mantener siempre en orden los lugares con sustancias químicas, normas especiales para su manipulación, uso de elementos de protección personal adecuados, medición periódica de niveles ambientales si corresponde y evaluación periódica de trabajadores expuestos.

LEGISLACIÓN APLICABLE EN ESPAÑA: DECRETO 594 (SALUD). ARTS. 59º A 69º

Establece definiciones y límites permisibles en lugares de trabajo para un listado de sustancias químicas. Advierte cuáles sustancias son cancerígenas conocidas y cuáles sospechosas de serlo. También indica en cuáles se debe controlar la exposición por piel. Fija una lista de sustancias prohibidas. Determina los ajustes que se deben hacer a los límites permisibles cuando la jornada de trabajo excede de 48 horas semanales y cuando se trabaja en altura.

RIESGOS DE CONTAMINACIÓN QUÍMICA Y BIOLÓGICA (Tercera parte)

RIESGOS DE CONTAMINACIÓN QUÍMICA Y BIOLÓGICA (Tercera parte)

SUSTANCIAS QUÍMICAS (continuación)

Una sustancia puede poseer propiedades de alta inflamabilidad y al mismo tiempo ser irritante sobre la piel y tóxica para el sistema nervioso. Para que el compuesto químico produzca daño, se requiere su ingreso al organismo, el cual se puede producir por tres vías:

Vía inhalatoria:

El químico ingresa a través de la respiración; mientras menor es el tamaño de sus partículas y mayor es la frecuencia con que se respira, aumenta el paso al organismo a través de esta vía.

Vía dérmica:

El químico penetra a través de la piel; los compuestos más grasosos penetran con mayor facilidad (solventes, por ejemplo) y su entrada se acelera en zonas con una capa de piel delgada o con lesiones; algunos químicos van produciendo lesiones en la piel, con lo cual va aumentando su ingreso.

Vía digestiva:

El químico ingresa en este caso al ser ingerido; los químicos que producen lesión por contacto directo entran mucho más rápido por esta vía, por lo que también la contaminación de alimentos es una vía de ingreso accidental.

Una vez dentro del organismo, la sustancia química entra a la sangre, desde donde los sistemas normales de eliminación de desechos del organismo la tratarán de limpiar. Los principales órganos de limpieza son el riñón (eliminación a través de la orina) y el hígado (por la vía de bilis y deposiciones). Si hay alguna falla en estos sistemas, se dificulta la eliminación. Si es que la sustancia química no actúa ni como irritante ni corrosiva (es decir, que no causa daño directo por contacto), el riesgo de daño a la salud depende de la capacidad para superar los mecanismos normales de eliminación: a mayor cantidad de sustancia química, mayor riesgo. La cantidad de sustancia química que ingresa al organismo aumenta si su concentración ambiental es alta, el tiempo de exposición es prolongado y si hay condiciones favorables en el sujeto expuesto (que respire más aceleradamente por fatiga, que presente lesiones en la piel, que elimine menos).

RIESGOS DE CONTAMINACIÓN QUÍMICA Y BIOLÓGICA (Segunda parte)

RIESGOS DE CONTAMINACIÓN QUÍMICA Y BIOLÓGICA (Segunda parte)

SUSTANCIAS QUÍMICAS

El listado de sustancias químicas que llegan a los centros laborales es enorme y en constante cambio.

De acuerdo a la peligrosidad principal que presenten se pueden distinguir grandes grupos de sustancias:

Inflamables:

Su peligro principal es que arden muy fácilmente en contacto con el aire, con riesgo resultante para personas y objetos materiales.

Corrosivas:

Producen destrucción de las partes del cuerpo que entran en contacto directo con la sustancia.

Irritantes:

En contacto directo con el organismo producen irritación.

Tóxicas:

Producen daño una vez que han ingresado al organismo.

Online Education Website Selection - Part 2

In my last article, we discussed reviewing online course selection and software when considering selection of an online learning website. While course selection and software are important, there are a number of other areas you should consider when selecting a online learning website.

Free Evaluation

While you may have to register or buy a course, make sure there is a free evaluation period and a no questions asked money back guarantee. Working with the product is the best way to evaluate the site. A free online evaluation allows you to see if the site matches your goals and objectives from your Self-Assessment..

Free Courses

Another way to evaluate online education websites is by taking the free online classes, if they are offered. While the online subjects offered for free may be very basic or not quite what you are interested in, working with the product in real time is the best form of evaluation.

Testimonials

While these should not be your sole source upon which to make a decision, you should review these. What do they say? How many can you find? Who is providing them? Testimonials, while many times are self-serving and are provided by the website you are reviewing, will give you an idea of what individuals like about the site and what they found beneficial. Hopefully, the testimonials will highlight areas you identify in your Self-Assessment..

Reviews

Reviews, especially independent reviews, are very beneficial to your decision. Reviews will confirm the quality of the online learning website and talk about the best features the website offers.

Pricing

Does the site offer individual course pricing? Package Pricing? Bulk pricing? Review the pricing structure to ensure it is flexible enough to address any of your learning needs. Of course you should consider pricing and a budget as part of your self-assessment.

If you pick a site using the criteria discussed above and those from Part I, you will not have to worry about picking a bad online learning site.
Author: Edward F. Todd, Jr. CPCU, ARM, AIC, MBA

RIESGOS DE CONTAMINACIÓN QUÍMICA Y BIOLÓGICA (Primera parte)

RIESGOS DE CONTAMINACIÓN QUÍMICA Y BIOLÓGICA (Primera parte)

El riesgo de contaminación por sustancias químicas o por agentes biológicos se encuentra bastante extendido y no sólo en actividades industriales que tradicionalmente se han asociado con el riesgo químico.

Se pueden encontrar contaminantes industriales y biológicos en las siguientes situaciones:

  • Sustancias químicas como materia prima del proceso productivo.
  • Sustancias utilizadas para la limpieza y la sanitización del local de trabajo.
  • Sustancias usadas como combustibles.
  • Sustancias químicas acumuladas en bodegas para su uso posterior, venta o manipulación.
  • Sustancias químicas acumuladas en recintos aledaños.
  • Agentes biológicos usados en el proceso productivo.
  • Agentes biológicos de desecho.
  • Agentes biológicos que proliferan en el lugar por acumulación de basura o por circunstancias naturales.

Es fácil observar que, en forma indirecta, prácticamente todos los locales de trabajo deben vigilar la contaminación por agentes químicos (ejemplo: detergentes y materiales de aseo, tintas de fotocopiadoras, etc.) y por agentes biológicos (basura de sanitarios, comedores y cocinas).

RIESGOS DEL AMBIENTE FÍSICO - FRIO

RIESGOS DEL AMBIENTE FÍSICO - FRIO

Como factor de riesgo físico, el frío se basa en el mismo principio señalado en relación al calor. El organismo debe mantener una temperatura profunda constante (por encima de los 36º C), para lo cual produce calor. Si la temperatura exterior es baja (exposición al frío), el calor producido en forma natural se pierde aceleradamente, llegando a poner en riesgo la vida. La pérdida de calor es mayor mientras más baja es la temperatura externa y mientras mayor es la velocidad del viento, el cual ayuda a disipar más rápidamente el calor producido.

Además del riesgo de congelamiento que puede amenazar la vida, el frío produce incomodidad y obliga a un mayor esfuerzo muscular, con aumento del riesgo de lesiones musculares. También desconcentra y disminuye la sensibilidad de la piel, con riesgo de accidentes. El frío produce efectos sobre el aparato respiratorio, favoreciendo la aparición de todo tipo de infecciones respiratorias, convirtiéndose también en agravante de enfermedades cardiovasculares.

LEGISLACIÓN APLICABLE EN ESPAÑA: DECRETO 594 (SALUD)

Art. 99º: definiciones y peligrosidad de las sensaciones térmicas resultantes de la temperatura ambiental medida y la velocidad del viento. Ejemplo: con una temperatura ambiental de 4º c (sobre cero), pero con un viento superior a los 50 km/hora, se alcanza una sensación térmica de -12º c (bajo cero). Con riesgo en exposición mayor de 1 hora, con una temperatura ambiental de -12º c y una velocidad del viento mayor que 32 km/hora, la sensación térmica alcanza niveles de peligro de congelamiento en 1 minuto.

Art. 100º: obligatoriedad de ropa térmica y aislante cuando existe exposición al frío.

Art. 101º y 102º: normas para cámaras frigoríficas.

NZDS 2010: New Zealand Development Scholarships For Undergraduate and Postgraduate

The New Zealand Development Scholarships (NZDS) scheme offers the opportunity to people from selected developing countries to undertake development-related studies in New Zealand. This may include study related to education, health, rural livelihoods, governance, human rights, or economic development, depending on the human resource development training needs of the home government.

New Zealand - Development Scholarships are offered for full-time, tertiary level study at participating New Zealand education institutions.

The NZDS scheme has two categories:
  1. New Zealand Development Scholarships – Public category (NZDS-Public)
  2. New Zealand Development Scholarships – Open category (NZDS-Open)


NEW ZEALAND DEVELOPMENT SCHOLARSHIPS - PUBLIC CATEGORY (NZDS-PUBLIC)

The NZDS-Public scholarships scheme is a bilateral scheme available to individuals from selected partner countries in:

Southeast Asia:
http://www.nzaid.govt.nz/scholarships/nzds/public-eligibility.html#asia

and the Pacific:
http://www.nzaid.govt.nz/scholarships/nzds/public-eligibility.html#pacific

The selection criteria is determined by the partner government and NZAID.

Shortlisted applications, mostly from public sector employees, are endorsed for a scholarship by the partner government. Employees from civil society or private sector organisations may apply for the NZDS-Public in some countries depending on country-specific selection criteria. The levels and fields of study available for study in New Zealand are determined according to the partner country’s human resource development training needs.


Related Links

NZDS-Public country eligibility:
http://www.nzaid.govt.nz/scholarships/nzds/public-eligibility.html

NZDS-Public application process:
http://www.nzaid.govt.nz/scholarships/nzds/public-process.html



NEW ZEALAND DEVELOPMENT SCHOLARSHIPS - OPEN CATEGORY (NZDS-OPEN)

The NZDS-Open scholarships scheme is a non-bilateral scheme available to candidates of some developing countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Pacific. Under the NZDS-Open scheme, candidates independently apply for a scholarship.

NZDS-Open scholarships are generally directed at employees of private sector or civil society sector organisations, including non-governmental organisations. In some countries, public sector employees can also apply for a NZDS-Open scholarship depending on the country or region-specific selection criteria. This criteria also determines the levels and the fields of study under which candidates can apply to study in New Zealand.


Related Links

NZDS-Open country eligibility:
http://www.nzaid.govt.nz/scholarships/nzds/open-eligibility.html

NZDS-Open application process | Bolivia, Ecuador, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicaragua, Philippines, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Viet Nam, Zambia, Zimbabwe:
http://www.nzaid.govt.nz/scholarships/nzds/open-process-asia-latin-america.html

NZDS-Open application process | Cambodia and Lao PDR:
http://www.nzaid.govt.nz/scholarships/nzds/open-process-cambodia-lao-pdr.html

NZDS-Open application process | Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay:
http://www.nzaid.govt.nz/scholarships/nzds/open-process-latin-america.html

NZDS-Open application process | Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu:
http://www.nzaid.govt.nz/scholarships/nzds/open-process-pacific.html

NZDS-Open application process | Samoa:
http://www.nzaid.govt.nz/scholarships/nzds/open-process-samoa.html

More Information:
www.scholarship-online.com

Benefits Of E-Learning; Interactive Education

  • Advantages over traditional classroom:
E-learning has more benefits than traditional classroom system. The flexibility and the cost savings are the most vital parts. Travel expenses are reduced henceforth and your precious time is not wasted. By using e-learning software you can produce your own asynchronous training program.
  • Self-paced:
Most e-learning programs are scheduled in such way that they can be studied when needed. The "books" have a module-based design which allows the learner to learn more from the site and move along when they require.
  • Fast movement:
It moves faster and even up to 50 percent faster than traditional courses. This is mainly because of individualized approach helps the learners to skip material they already know, understand, and henceforth move onto new courses.
  • Uniformity of Content:
The information delivered will be consistent to all users, therefore possibility for misinterpretations can be easily eliminated.
  • Customizable Content:
Information is developed while keeping individual users in mind. Courses and programs are made in such way that they deal with individual's strengths and weaknesses.
  • Content can be updated quickly:
The content, consisting of product and procedural changes can be updated easily to the benefit of the user. This is of great importance in the corporate market.
  • The Mission:
The mission of corporate e learning is to provide state-of-the-art and cost-effective program that yields motivated, skilled, and loyal knowledge workers.
  • No technical obstacle:
At present people depend mostly on computers and accessing the technical help like computer and Internet is no issue. Taking technical support
for granted, there is a vast progress of e learning.
  • Expense and inconvenience:
The biggest benefit of e learning is the reduction of expense and problem of getting the instructor and students are highly reduced.
  • Updating the lessons:
Since elearning is web-based, the instructors can easily update the lessons once they are ready. This is of great benefit for the learners. It has been found that e learning has a greater consistency about 50% to 60% more than the normal courses.

For the students therefore, there is a greater learning impact than the normal courses.
  • Interactive online session:
The interactive online environment comprise case studies, discussion groups, project teams, chat rooms, story-telling, demonstrations, role-playing, simulations, streamed videos, online references, personalized coaching and mentoring, e-mail, bulletin boards, tips, tutorials, FAQs, and wizards.

Author: Tyler Moon

Online Education Website Selection - Part 1

There are numerous online education sites who offer hundreds of courses in various disciplines. Unlike Online Universities, you do not have to work towards a degree and can purchase one course or all the courses offered. Some online learning sites offer package deals in a particular topic or discipline. So how do you decide which online learning site to choose? Use the following as a guide for a start and then do a Self-Assessment to make your online education experience as useful as possible.

1. Course Selection

This is the most obvious as you probably have a topic in mind. However, you should be looking towards the future as well. Take a look through the entire online course catalogue. Are there other courses you might be interested in? Are there other related topics to the one you are interested in that would help expand your knowledge? Do the courses offered fit in with your Self-Assessment? You want to be sure you can grow with the site and that the site offers both diversity in online course subjects and depth from beginner to advanced courses and related important subjects that might be worth studying.


2. Software

While this may not initially seem like an important feature, there are a number of basic features that any online education site should offer. The most important is navigation features including but not limited to a detailed Table of Contents and Index. Bookmarking is also important including remembering your last location at logoff. Learning for most people is not just reading through material but involves looking back at other sections and making connections from prior material as you move through the course making good navigation critical.

In the next article we will examine evaluation, pricing and testimonials and how to use each to your best advantage.
Author: Edward F. Todd, Jr.

UK - Middlesex Business School PhD Studentships in the Broad Fields of Business and Management

Middlesex University Business School,
invites applications to start in September - October 2009 for suitably qualified candidates for studentships inthe broad fields of business and management.


The studentships are offered on a full-time basis and include a maintenance award (currently £12,940 pa). In some cases, applicants may be put forward for ESRC awards. The Scholarships are for four years, subject to satisfactory progress.

Applications are open to both EU and overseas candidates. Applicants are encouraged to consult the Business School website for details of research interests in the school. Applications in any field of business and management are welcome.


The Business School has particular strengths in the following areas:
  • Global Labour Issues
(please visit the Global Work and Employment Project part of the website http://www.mdx.ac.uk/bs/departments/GWEP/GWEP.asp)
  • Human Resource Development
  • Finance
  • Accounting
  • Local and regional economic development
  • Corporate Social Responsibility
  • Economics
  • Law, including Human Rights Law
  • Law and socio-economics


Deadline:

Together with the application form, applicants should submit a full CV andcovering letter with details of two academic referees and an outline oftheir proposed research (two to three) pages including a short bibliography by 20 March 2009 to:

Patricia Babatunde, Research and Business Office, Middlesex University, The Burroughs, London NW4 4BT.

Interviews will be held 16/17 April 2009.

For application forms and further information see our website:

http://www.mdx.ac.uk/bs/index.asp
http://www.mdx.ac.uk/research/degrees/apply.asp

RIESGOS DEL AMBIENTE FÍSICO - CALOR

RIESGOS DEL AMBIENTE FÍSICO - CALOR

Se considera como un factor de riesgo físico cuando la temperatura corporal profunda se puede elevar por encima de los 38º Celsius. En tales circunstancias, el riesgo de muerte es inminente. El organismo humano produce calor en forma natural, para que no se llegue a un nivel de temperatura interna riesgoso, existen mecanismos de regulación que funcionan automáticamente. En algunos trabajos las condiciones de temperatura que se alcanzan son tales que pueden acabar por superar las formas naturales de regulación y poner en riesgo a la persona. Una forma de bajar la temperatura interior es aumentar la ventilación, el consumo de agua y disminuir la actividad física. Si a los trabajadores de una fundición se les limitan las pausas necesarias para esa regulación natural, se los coloca en riesgo de sufrir graves accidentes por exceso de calor. Las ropas con mala ventilación son en tal sentido inadecuadas para exponerse al calor ambiental, por lo cual a veces trabajadores que aplican plaguicidas no quieren usar trajes impermeables en horas de mayor calor, a pesar del riesgo de intoxicación. Un ambiente húmedo impide que el mecanismo de sudoración del cuerpo actúe libremente y, al impedir la sudoración, se inhibe una de las formas más importantes que usa el organismo para eliminar calor y bajar la temperatura interna.

Una adecuada prevención contra el calor debe considerar:

  • Reducir la exposición al calor al mínimo necesario (bajando tiempos de exposición y/o bajando temperaturas absolutas).
  • Aumentar la ventilación del local.
  • Proveer ropa de trabajo adecuada que permita ventilación y sudoración normales.
  • Permitir pausas para reducir actividad y reponer líquidos.
  • Proveer suficiente agua potable.
  • Controlar los niveles de humedad en caso de ser posible.

Aunque la legislación enfatiza la prevención del riesgo de muerte inminente, el control de los niveles de calor permite también proteger máquinas y equipos sensibles, evitar el deterioro de materias primas y productos, y mejorar la confortabilidad general para todos los trabajadores y trabajadoras.

LEGISLACION APLICABLE EN ESPAÑA: DECRETO 594 (SALUD). ARTS. 96º A 99º

Establece las formas en que se debe medir la temperatura, cómo se calcula la exposición diaria, cómo se calcula el nivel medido. Además, fija los límites de exposición al calor diferenciados según la carga de trabajo (liviano, moderado o pesado, para lo cual también se fijan los rangos medibles de acuerdo al costo de energía del trabajo) y según el ritmo de trabajo (relación entre períodos de trabajo y períodos de pausa). Entrega un listado de ejemplos de trabajos y su respectivo costo energético.